Orgnanic Acid Urine Analyte (Metabolite) List
Citramalic, 5-Hydroxymethyl-furoic, 3-Oxoglutaric, Furan-2,5-dicarboxylic, Furancarbonylglycine, Tartaric, Arabinose, Carboxycitric, Tricarballylic, 2-Hydroxyphenylacetic, 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic, 4-Hydroxybenzoic, 4-Hydroxyhippuric, Hippuric, 3-Indoleacetic, Succinic, HPHPA (Clostridia marker), 4-Cresol, DHPPA (beneficial bacteria), Glyceric, Glycolic, Oxalic, Lactic, Pyruvic, 2-Hydroxybutyric, Succinic, Fumaric, Malic, 2-Oxoglutaric, Aconitic, Citric, Homovanillic Acid (HVA), Vanilmandelic Acid (VMA), 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA), Quinolinic, Kinurenic, Qunilinic / 5-HIAA Ratio, Quinolinic / Kynurenic Ratio, Uracil, Thymine, 3-Hydroxybutyric, Acetoacetic, 4-Hydroxybutyric, Ethylmalonic, Methylsuccinic, Adipic, Suberic, Sebacic, Methylmalonic (Vitamin B12), Pyridoxic (Vitamin B6), Pantothenic (Vitamin B5), Glutaric (Vitamin B2), Ascorbic (Vitamin C), 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaric (Vitamin Q10), N-Acetylcysteine (Glutathion Precursor), Methylcitric, Pyroglutamic, Orotic, 2-Hydroxyhippuric, 2-Hydroxyisovaleric, 2-Oxoisovaleric, 3-Methyl-2-Oxovaleric, 2-Hydroxyisocaproic, 2-Oxoisocaproic, 2-Oxo-4-Methiolbutyric, Mandelic, Phenyllactic, Phenylpyruvic, Homogentisic, 4-Hydroxyphenyllactic, N-Acetylaspartic, Malonic, 3-Methylglutaric, Phosphoric, Creatinine.
3-Hydroxyglutaric Acid Marker for Genetic Disease
A metabolite associated with the genetic disease glutaric aciduria type I, which is due to a deficiency of glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the breakdown of lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan. In this disorder, other organic acids (glutaric and glutaconic) will be elevated. Treatment includes special diets low in lysine and supplementation with carnitine or acetyl-L-carnitine.
3-Methylglutaric Acid Marker for Mitochondrial Disorder
Significant increase is due to a reduced ability to metabolize the amino acid leucine. This abnormality is found in the genetic disease methylglutaconic aciduria and in mitochondrial disorders. 3-Methylglutaconic acid may also be elevated. Supplementation with coenzyme Q10, NAD+, L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine, riboflavin, nicotinamide, biotin, and vitamin E may be useful.
4-Cresol Marker for Bacteria Including Selected Clostridia
Indicates a possible overgrowth of intestinal bacteria that are specific p-cresol producers including selected Clostridia. 4-Cresol is a phenolic product poorly metabolized in children with autism. High-potency multi-strain probiotics may help rebalance GI flora.
Tricarballylic Acid Marker for Exposure to Certain Fungal Contamination in Foods
A chemical by-product released from fumonisins during passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Fumonisins are fungal toxins produced primarily by F. verticillioides. Elevated levels can be caused by the intake of corn or corn-based food contaminated with fumonisins.
Quinolinic Acid Marker for Inflammation and Neurotoxicity
This acid derived from the amino acid tryptophan and can be neurotoxic at high levels. Quinolinic acid can over stimulate nerve cells, causing the cells to die. Brain toxicity due to this acid has been implicated in Alzheimers disease, autism, Huntingtons disease, stroke, dementia, depression, HIV-associated dementia, and schizophrenia.
Inorganic Phosphate Marker for Bone Function/Vitamin D Deficiency
Low phosphate is associated with thyroid disorders, low nutritional phosphate intake, and vitamin D deficiency.
4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Marker for Exposure to Parabens
This acid is a metabolite of methylparaben, an anti-fungal and a popular preservative added to food and cosmetics. Parabens may be linked to mitochondrial failure resulting in chronic fatigue. Hydroxybenzoic acids can also be produced from microbial metabolism of polyphenols in the diet. Parabens have been found at high levels in breast cancer samples, but a definitive relationship with breast cancer has not been demonstrated.
4-Hydroxyhippuric Acid Marker for Exposure to Parabens
4-Hydroxyhippuic, like 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, is a metabolite of methylparaben. Higher levels of this compound can result from eating fruits rich in anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydroxycinnamates that are metabolized by gastrointestinal bacteria.
Malic Acid Marker for Mitochondrial Dysfunction
When malic acid is elevated simultaneously with citric, fumaric, and alpha-ketoglutaric acids, it may cause Cytochrome C Oxidase Deficiency, a metabolic disorder disrupting energy production.
DHPPA Marker for Beneficial Bacteria
Harmless or beneficial bacteria mediate the breakdown of chlorogenic acid to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (DHPPA). High values of DHPPA are associated with increased amounts of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) Marker for Glutathione Precursor & Chelating Agent
NAC is a powerful antioxidant that increases glutathione reserves in the body. Glutathione is a crucial antioxidant and detoxification agent produced in the body. NAC reduces the toxicity of drugs like acetaminophen (Tylenol) and protects against poisoning by mercury and other heavy metals.
Quinolinic Acid/5-HIAA Ratio Marker for Neurotoxicity and Inflammation
A high ratio of quinolinic acid to the metabolite 5-hydoxyindole-acetic acid indicates excessive inflammation. High levels of these markers could be due to recurrent infections, immune overstimulation, high tryptophan intake, excessive adrenal production of cortisol, and frequent exposure to phthalates (chemical used in plastics and many household items).